Article 5 of the Paris Agreement on Global Climate Change stipulates that all parties to the Agreement (1) should take action to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including forests; and (2) they are encouraged to take action to implement and support, including through results-based payments, the existing framework as set out in related guidance and decisions already agreed under the Convention for: policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (plus) in developing countries; and alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, while reaffirming the importance of incentivising, as appropriate, non-carbon benefits associated with such approaches.

      The approaches to REDD plus have been evolved since 2005 which advanced in significant decisions taken by COP 16 at Cancun in 2010- (16th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC) and finally adopted as the Warsaw framework for REDD plus at COP 19. According to the agreement and decisions as referred to in Article 5 of the Paris Agreement, the developing countries will implement REDD plus which will be supported by developed countries.

      However, it is a fact that the implementation of REDD plus is not legally binding if one goes by the Paris Agreement language as contained in Article 5. The words used are “should” and “are encouraged” and not “shall”. This probably was a result of ecological, political and socio-economic complexities associated with forestry sector in practically all developing countries and enormous insurmountable difficulties involved in implementation of REDD plus. Also, a consensus on REDD plus would be improbable in view of a variety of stakeholders and interests. REDD plus policies and approaches as evolved make it a voluntary and incentive-based activity.   Nevertheless, there are international expectations that developing countries should take actions to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and that they manage forests sustainably to conserve as well as enhance carbon stocks. According to 4th Report of the Inter-government Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) deforestation and forest degradation contribute to about 17 percent of green house gas (GHG) emissions. By implementing REDD plus not only the GHG emissions from forests will reduce but sequestration of GHG from atmosphere will also increase.

      Although REDD plus implementation is not legally binding and obligatory under the Paris Agreement, the developing countries that have submitted their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) with measurable ambitions including actions to increase forest carbon sinks, reduce deforestation (forest clearance) and degradation and undertake afforestation/ reforestation, the climate change mitigation through forests becomes legally binding with or without explicitly implementing REDD plus for results-based payments. Therefore, the voluntary nature of Article 5 does not remain voluntary if a country’s NDCs include mitigation through forests. The implementation of NDCs is required to be quantifiable, measurable and verifiable through a system established and methodology adopted and rules framed by the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC serving as the meeting of the Parties of the Paris Agreement (CMA). This will require monitoring of carbon stocks in forests of a country on a regular basis and report submitted as part of the progress report of the NDCs. For example, India has committed through its NDCs, creation of additional sinks in forests for 2.5 to 3 billion tones of CO2 equivalent by 2030. This may be presumed from a baseline of 2015 as the current carbon stocks in its forests forest must sequestrate and store an additional 2.5 to 3 billion tones of Carbon.

      A country having committed its climate change mitigation and adaptation ambition (or target) through its NDCs is required to prepare a baseline or forest emissions reference level (FERL) and forest reference level (FRL) using guidance and methodology of IPCC as adopted by the COP with full transparency of methodology and report. A periodic progress report of NDCs, every five years, will be submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat for inclusion in a registry. The required information and reports submitted by a Party to the Agreement will be scrutinised by a technical review committee as well as there will be a periodic stock taking by the CMA. The provision of accountability is amply clear in the processes, methods and regulations to be developed and adopted by the CMA under the Agreement.

      A country’s NDCs submission in itself is not an instrument of incentives in form of results-based payment. It is an international obligation for which the concerned country will be accountable. Unless REDD plus is implemented to achieve forest related ambition or target, and the results-based actions are fully measurable, verifiable and reported, no financial benefits will accrue to those countries that implement forest-based mitigation.

      This brings us to decision that REDD plus is implemented in all its phases beginning with development of a national strategy or action plan as well as capacity. The three phases as decided by COP are

I. Development of national strategies or action plans, policies and measures, and capacity-building, followed by

II. the implementation of national policies and measures and national strategies or action plans that could involve

further capacity-building,

technology development and transfer, and

results-based demonstration activities, and

III. evolving into results-based actions that should be fully measured, reported and verified.

      It was also decided that while developing or implementing its national strategies and national action plans a country will address, inter alia,

  1. The drivers of deforestation and degradation;
  2. Land tenure issues;
  3. Forest governance issues;
  4. Gender considerations;
  5. Safeguards identified and agreed by COP;
  6. Full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, inter alia, indigenous people and local communities.

            A country implementing REDD plus, if it seeks or looks for results-based finance, is required to adhere to all principles and take all actions as agreed at COP 16 (Cancun) and reiterated, finalized and adopted as part of the Warsaw Framework for REDD plus at COP session in November 2014 (COP 19-Warsaw). A country is required to develop a national forest reference or sub-national level as an interim measure, emission level or forest reference level; robust and transparent national forest monitoring system for the monitoring and reporting of activities or if appropriate at subnational level; and provide information about how safeguards are being addressed. The sole basis for REDD plus success or failure is the increase or decrease in forest carbon stock compared to a base line or forest reference level. If there is an increase, incentives will flow from whatever sources and the increase has to be retained and desirably multiplied over the years or decades to qualify to continue to receive payments for results-based actions.

            REDD plus objectives can also be achieved without implementing it as an independent action for incentives but as part of ambition or target in a country’s NDCs to mitigate climate change impacts by reducing emissions from forests and sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide by expanding forest carbon sinks. Many developing countries would want to draw payments for REDD plus actions. They are in effect sequestrating emissions pushed by developed countries. They would need for this purpose support from developed countries in form of financial assistance, capacity building, technology and associated transaction costs, fully or partially.

            However, certain risks are associated with implementation of REDD plus. The first risk is that after substantial efforts and investment, the benefits may not commensurate the cost or even there may be a net negative rate of return. Some countries that are not confident about positive incentives from REDD plus (e.g. India, China, South Africa etc.) may avoid this implementation risk and may yet put in place or strengthen their forest carbon inventory monitoring system.

            The second perceived risk is from safeguard issues both environmental and social. A robust environment and social assessment (ESA) is required as an essential part of REDD plus preparedness as well as project development document. Since the stringent safeguard policies of the World Bank are being adopted, many countries may not be comfortable as mitigation plans, if any, will not only involve substantial cost but will also be cumbersome. For example, if an ESA results find that the interests of indigenous people or other forest dependent local communities are adversely affected by way of restricting access to REDD plus forest areas thereby jeopardising their livelihood opportunities or any physical displacement is involves, safeguard issues will be triggered. Safeguards are meant to ensure that REDD plus related activities do not result in any adverse environmental or social impact such as biodiversity, drastic alteration of a natural ecosystem structure and composition. Implementation of safeguards may reduce or offset financial incentives and create unnecessary responsibilities.

         The third risk is possibility of deviation from transparency framework as established under Article 13 the Paris Agreement with a view to build mutual trust and confidence and to promote effective implementation. The principles and guidance relating to governance, monitoring and reporting, if compromised will deny incentives and adverse international opinion.

        The REDD plus finance for results-based incentive continues to remain elusive. The possibility of US $100 billion climate fund as discussed at the recently concluded November 2016 COP 22 at Marrakech, could not be resolved by the international communities. The World politics is changing fast so are the commitments.          

A Paradigm Shift to Ecosystem-based Forest Management in India

Irshad A Khan

1. State of India’s Forests

1.1 The serious challenge is how to arrest further degradation of forests and how to restore degraded forest ecosystems. Systematic forest management started in India in mid-nineteenth century during the British colonial rule. The forests as we see today are a result of more than 150 years of management intervention. Despite huge pressure on forests from heavy logging for revenue generation, unregulated grazing, fuel wood extraction and timber thefts, the Forest Departments have been able to save 77 million hectares of forest land from complete conversion to non-forest land use as well as huge volume of growing stock of trees, other vegetation and wildlife. However, the serious challenge faced today is how to arrest further degradation of forests and how to restore degraded forest ecosystems at a high speed to sustain forest cover and values for future generations.
1.2 Not more than 5 percent of forests are fully stocked. The Forest Survey of India, an agency of the Government of India, carries out monitoring of forest cover in India every two years. The crown density is used as a basis of classification of forest cover in designated forests (state owned). The following table shows the forest cover with different crown densities.

Table: Forest area crown density wise

Forest Cover                              Density range (%)        Million ha           Percentage
Very dense forests                          70-100                                       8.3                           11
Moderately dense forests              40-70                                       31.9                          43
Open forests                                     10-40                                       29.6                          40
Scrub                                                 00-10                                         4.1                             6
Total                                                                                                    73.9                         100

(Source: State of Forest Report 2013, Forest Survey of India)
1.3 This shows that open forests and scrubs constitute 46% of forests area where crown density is less than 40%. Only 11% forests are dense with crown density above 70%. Moderately dense forests have crown density 40 to 69 percent. The degraded forests are 46% and forests above 40% density are 54%. In other words 89% forests are poorly stocked. These are highly degraded. It can also be assumed that not more than 5 percent of forests are fully stocked. One should be cautious about accepting merely crown density as an indication of forest health and stocking.

1.4 The vast majority of forests areas are characterized by:
1. Over all poor stocking
2. Absence or lack of adequate natural regeneration
3. Scanty undergrowth, shrubs and soil cover
4. Absence of fertile top soil and organic matter
5. Eroded soil, sheet erosion and rill and even gully erosion in many localities
6. Low proportion of younger age trees
7. Altered species composition
8. Heavy grazing by local and migratory cattle
9. Failed or low survival of plantations
10. Monoculture plantations vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack
11. Depleted biodiversity

1.5  In India forests are not being managed on a sustainable basis. It has been impossible to maintain ecological integrity of forests for the following reasons:
1. Past management practices focused on a single objective of wood harvesting.
2. Forest areas that were heavily logged over in the past did not regenerate though it was assumed that forest regrowth would take place naturally.
3. About 89 % forest ecosystems are in varying degree of degradation.
4. Heavy grazing by livestock in forests indicates that legally designated forests have pasture or range as the de facto primary land use and forestry is a secondary land use.
5. Indiscriminate Fuel wood extraction by rural communities disturbs forest health and ecological integrity.
6. Forest boundaries are not legally sacrosanct. Forestland encroachment for agriculture is common.
7. Leaf litter on forest floor is collected for domestic energy or manure.
8. Lopping is done for fodder, fuel wood as well as for green manure or composting material.
9. Man induced forest fires are common.
10. Forest restoration through reforestation and afforestation could not keep pace with deforestation and forest degradation.

1.6 The objective of only yield of timber was given priority. The yield was neither sustainable nor in perpetuity. The forest health and well being were implicitly included as objectives of forest management through a working plan system, emphasizing sustained yield management along with conserving soil, fauna and flora and wildlife. These objectives were not given adequate attention in the implementation of management plans and the objective of only yield of timber was given priority. The yield was neither sustainable nor in perpetuity. While managing forests for timber harvesting, attention was not paid to dependence of communities and other land use of forests like livestock grazing, domestic energy and livelihoods. The native population was used as labor force and not stakeholders. This was a colonial syndrome as land belonged to ruler who could do as it pleased. The concessions or rights were treated as servitude. The feudal system that perpetuated poverty, hunger and slavery disenfranchised millions of forest and fringe forest dwellers from their age-old rights and privileges over nearby forests. However, the increasing population and unlimited demand and urge for consumption of forest based resources, in any case, would have destroyed forests beyond recovery.

2. Impact of past management

2.1 The classical forest management philosophy did not take into account ecology, multiple use forestry, local rural livelihoods and a long-term vision. The Colonial rulers carved out forests from wastelands and the local rulers claimed control over all land that was forested but not owned by anyone. While doing so though the British ruled provinces undertook the process of settlement where only rights of settled villagers were inquired into and not of landless nomadic tribes who depended on hunting and food gathering. The objective of the imperial administration was to mine timer for shipbuilding and later for laying a railway network in India. The natural forests were a good source to harvest commercially valuable timber species. Thus the main objective of forest management was to harvest timber and also convert mixed species tree stands to a single species even-aged forest. The basic management principles were brought from Franco-German forestry practices and the silvicultural and management systems introduced in India heavily relied upon assumptions that any logging will be followed by natural regeneration and that yield of timber would be available in perpetuity. This management philosophy did not take into account ecology, multiple use forestry, local rural livelihoods and a long-term vision.

2.2 Working plans were produced to assess growing stock and estimate allowable annual cut (yield) of timber. With the above objective, a planning system was developed where working plans were produced on a ten years cycle to assess growing stock and estimate allowable annual cut (yield) of timber. This was also reflected in forestry training in that the principles of agronomy were borrowed and forests were termed as “crops”. Forestry personnel were trained in the art of logging, growing forest crops, forest industries, building infrastructure (road, culverts, small bridges and small buildings) in remote forest areas, and protection of forests from timber thieves, pests, insects and pathogens. This philosophy was also reflected in forest laws and policies starting from 1892 onward. That was the time when human population was not much and forests and land were assumed abundant and that these were to be used as much as possible.

2.3 The management adopted the following silvicultural systems:

• Uniform system or its variant or seed tree system or shelter wood system
• Selection system/group selection system
• Clear felling with artificial regeneration
• Coppice system/coppice with reserve/coppice with standards
2.4 The objective was to harvest timber on a sustained yield principle and get natural regeneration or plantation in clear-cut areas. A certain number of seed trees were retained after major felling and commercially valuable species were favoured with removal of other tree species in shelter wood system. Same approach was under selection system where trees with minimum exploitable diameter were harvested. The selection system proved liquidation of trees of higher diameter classes belonging to commercially marketable species (example, Himalayan pine forests). Clear-cut areas sooner or later became barren due to lack of protection and maintenance of plantations with required inputs. All these operations coupled with heavy and unregulated fuel-wood extraction and grazing resulted in degradation and depletion of forest resources across the country.
2.5 The main role of the state forest departments (SFDs) was to generate maximum and increasing revenue for the State. After the country attained independence in 1947, same colonial policies were followed and cash strapped states demanded more and more revenue from the forest sector. The main role of the state forest departments (SFDs) was to generate maximum and increasing revenue for the state to satisfy state finance deportment’s revenue target. The financial resources in most states for development of other sectors came from the forest departments without a corresponding and much needed investment for the improvement of forest resources.

2.6 Two developments changed course of the history of forest management- one the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 and, two the Supreme Court Orders in Godavarman vs. Union of India case. This trend continued relentlessly throughout 1950s to 80s. As a protest to reckless destruction of forests, a nascent environmental movement created significant public awareness against tree cutting. Chipko movement in UP hills and Silent valley movement in south were expressions of growing awareness about environment. Later two developments changed course of the history of forest management- one the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 and, two the Supreme Court Orders in Godavarman vs. Union of India case. With the slow down and even cessation of indiscriminate logging operations in some states and regulated forestland conversion to non-forest uses, the business as usual stopped. However, the damage had already been done and forest degradation continued. Forests became degraded, conflicts over this resource exacerbated, and socio-political forces superseded conservation ideals rendering sustainable forest management a dream.

3. Current policy and management approach
3.1 The objective of reversing or even further halting deterioration of forests poses a serious challenge to not only the practitioner of forest management but for the nation as a whole. As a collective national conscience, this generation is failing in leaving healthy natural resource for future generations. Sometimes democratic institutions guarantee a healthy natural environment and natural resources (though in a long run) and sometimes with poor governance they become instrumental in their destruction. Under various orders of the Supreme Court of India, there is ban on cutting of green trees in the Himalayan region. The Court directives have also imposed ban on harvesting of timber without ensuring regeneration or replanting as well as harvesting without a valid working plan of the related forest division. Harvesting of plantations, however, is permissible. The Supreme Court’s directives were issued from time to time as the executive failed to implement its own policies

3.2 National Forest Policy of 1952 could not be successfully implemented. This is evident from the preamble to the National Forest Policy of 1988 (current policy), which acknowledges that
“Over the years, forests in the country have suffered serious depletion. This is attributable to relentless pressures arising from ever-increasing demand for fuel-wood, fodder and timber; inadequacy of protection measures; diversion of forest lands to non-forest uses without ensuring compensatory afforestation and essential environmental safeguards; and the tendency to look upon forests as revenue earning resource.”

3.3 The forest policy ideals have not been adequately supported by actions on ground. The Policy reiterates the goal of 1952 policy of 33 % country’s land to be put under forest. This aspirational goal remains a distant dream. The forest policy gives supremacy to environmental considerations in forest management and all other objectives have been made subservient to it. How far the ecological goals have been achieved is a matter of debate. Secondly, policy stipulates that people have first charge on forests and their bona fide needs from forests should be satisfied. These ideals have not been adequately backed by actions on ground. The policy stipulations relating to grazing, rights and concessions could not be successfully implemented in most states and it has been business as usual. Also, the goal to enhance forest productivity has, by and large, been not achieved as is evident from the successive reports of the Forest Survey of India. Conversion of forests to non-forest uses continues with increasing demand for forest clearance for mining and infrastructure development.
Forest Ecosystem degradation

3.4     Despite the conservation centred policy and massive afforestation and reforestation efforts the forest degradation could not be arrested or reversed. The main causes (consequent to increase in population and rising socio-economic expectations of the society) of forest ecosystem loss and degradation are discussed below:
A. Deforestation
1. Conversion of forestland to agriculture
2. Clearance for urbanization
3. Clearance for infrastructure development-roads, railway lines, dams, transmission lines, irrigation canals, water reservoirs, etc.
4. Mining of ores and minerals (coal, lignite, copper, bauxite, iron, zinc,), limestone
5. Quarrying of stones
6. Settlement of displaced persons
7. Government buildings
8. Industries

B. Degradation

1. Heavy exploitation of commercially important species
2. Commercially oriented forest management involving clearance of mixed forests and its replacement by planting of single species
3. Management with heavy reliance on (anticipated) natural regeneration
4. Low investment in regeneration or forest restoration after harvesting.
5. Human population growth resulting in increased demand for forest products
6. Tragedy of commons
7. Poverty- forcing people heavy dependence on
a. Wood as domestic energy; Wood extraction for fuel wood or small cottage based industries, tea     leave curing, tobacco curing,
b. Free and unregulated livestock grazing,
c. Unsustainable and destructive selective NTFP harvesting
d. Shifting cultivation
8. Forest fires almost all human caused

C. Policy and market distortions. Policies of distributing timber free or at concessional prices involved increasing demand and created political pressures to meet these demands by excessive harvesting. NTFP collection barring a few species had been allowed unregulated and free that has not only resulted in unsustainable harvesting but also disappearance of many species in many areas.
D. Inter-sectoral or cross-sectoral policies. Policies of other sectors have had and continue to have serious adverse impacts on forests. For example, the policy of livestock sector that promotes increase in population of sheep, goats, cows and other cattle puts increased pressure of grazing in forests without appreciating the carrying capacity or availability of fodder and pastures. Mining, infrastructure and agriculture are other major sectors that involve forest clearance.
E. Institutional Capacity. Policies and law have been implemented half-heartedly partly due to lack of resources and partly due lack of political will resulting in absence of desired outcomes. Inadequate organization capacity of state forestry institutions also creates detriment to effective management of forest resources.
F. Land Tenure. Land tenure issues, pending settlement process in some areas, demarcation, mutation in revenue records and partial implementation of Forest Rights Act have been affecting forest management. Land tenure in many areas is still not settled that allows illegal occupation of forestland and change of land use.
G. Political support and alliances. One discouraging fact is that both Central and State Governments have always given low priority to the forest sector in socio-economic development agenda except in the decade of 1980s when conservation movement got support of the central government. During this period substantial funds were made available for forest development and conservation, Forest (Conservation) Act and a new Forest Policy were promulgated and people’s participation in afforestation and reforestation encouraged. However, as of now the forest sector does not enjoy any noticeable political support or clout as well as alliance with media, civil society, politicians, bureaucracy or public at large. This isolation and even an apparent contempt for forest departments is a serious constraint for the last more than 5 decades having a detrimental influence on forest management.

Current forest management
3.5 Forest productivity has declined over years so has harvesting of forest products. Current Management of forest is mixed one focused on conservation and harvesting of forest products on supposedly sustained yield basis. Forest productivity has declined over years so has wood harvesting. Bulk of timber, pulp and even finished furniture used in India are imported from other tropical countries like Malaysia and Indonesia. The principle of sustained yield has almost been unsuccessful due to failure to sustain long-term productivity of forests. The non-timber forest products have been subjected to selective destructive harvesting resulting in depletion and even total extinction of certain species from certain localities particularly those the roots or tubers of which had commercial use.

3.6 The condition of most forests, which have been under regular management for a long time, is that they are heavily degraded and have middle aged and a few mature trees, with little or no regeneration, absence of young poles and understory, eroded soils devoid of humus and organic matter, dry land with no moisture contents (most of the year) in soil. Probably these forests have been harvested repeatedly at short intervals without allowing the system to reach full maturity and nutrient cycling. All this makes these areas highly vulnerable which are slowly turning into aridity; it is just a matter of time when these lands will become desert. Forests are open to unregulated heavy grazing, grass cutting and fodder lopping. Leaves are swept in many areas from forest floors impoverishing the site in organic matter and soil nutrients. Topsoil is washed away during rains due to unprotected soil surface by vegetative cover. Biodiversity in forests is declining and except a few, most protected areas (PAs) are not being managed actively due to lack of funds and staff. PAs are not being managed as ecosystems but are being preserved for a particular mammal or bird species e.g. tiger, elephant, bison, rhino and lion.
4.  An Ecosystem Approach to Forest Management

4.1 The classical forest management has to shift to an integrated and holistic management based on sound ecological principles. The forests should be managed as ecosystems where all elements and their functions and biogeochemical processes are allowed to continue to maintain ecosystem functionality and integrity. The focus should not only be on trees but also on shrubs, climbers, herbs, grasses, fauna, micro fauna and flora, soil, soil nutrients, soil moisture and the fringe human habitations that affect the ecological processes and are at the centre of ecosystem management.
4.2 Two new demands on forests that have come recently are-biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation (carbon sequestration). We do not know what may be the new demands on forests in future. This requires that forest ecosystems should not be disturbed beyond recovery and their integrity must be maintained while using their services on a sustainable basis for the benefit of society.

Ecosystem management Principles

4.3 The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) approach to ecosystem-based management is that:
Ecosystem and natural habitats management seeks to meet human requirements to use natural resources, whilst maintaining the biological richness and ecological processes necessary to sustain the composition, structure and function of the habitats or ecosystems concerned. Important within this process is the setting of explicit goals and practices, regularly updated in the light of the results of monitoring and research activities.

The IUCN defines it as a “process that integrates ecological, socio-economic, and institutional factors into comprehensive analysis and action in order to sustain and enhance the quality of the ecosystem to meet current and future needs”.
4.4 Convention on Biodiversity parties have agreed in 2005 to the following description of an ecosystem approach:
The ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization, which encompass the essential processes and interactions amongst organisms and their environment. The ecosystem approach recognizes that humans are an integral component of ecosystems.

Forest Ecosystem Management
4.5 Worldwide, the forest management practices are currently undergoing the most thoughtful, intense and swift change since their beginning in 19th century. The shift from the principle of sustained yield management of quite a limited number of marketable tree species to the sustainable management of forest ecosystems is transforming some of the basic historical forest management principles. The approach to looking at forests for trees or wood is no more valid today when it has been established that forests provide important ecosystem services and any interference with the biogeochemical processes in a forest ecosystem and alteration of its structure and functions destroys the ecological integrity with serious repercussions on abilities of these ecosystems to provide goods and services to present and future generations of human societies.

4.6 The central goal of ecosystem management is sustainability, where the emphasis is on delivering ecosystems services for current use without compromising the ability to provide them in the future. A fundamental aspect of this is the need to protect sources of resources (ecosystems). To use a banking analogy, traditional economic approaches have been living off nature’s capital, whereas a sustainable economic model based on ecosystem management is an attempt to live off nature’s interest. This reflects the need to shift away from resource management towards ecosystem management.

Sustainable Forest Management and Ecosystem-based Management

4.7 Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) focuses on production of goods from forests mainly timber. Ecosystem management of forests is more holistic in its application and considers environmental services with focus on maintaining ecosystem functioning. SFM was originally intended to integrate ecological, social, and economic values. However, this integration has not been done effectively anywhere. With a view to implement SFM effectively, it is essential that a sound strategy for forest management, including goals, indicators, and performance measures, is adopted that becomes the basis for policy and management decisions. The strategy can provide a clear guidance for making critical decision about managing forest resources. However, such a strategy either does not exist or is not implemented and the primary objective of forest management remains the maximization of timber harvest at minimum cost while protecting environmental values. India’s forestry institutions worked on criteria and indicators of SFM. However, it has not been practiced in its true sense. The current approach to SFM does not ensure sustainability. There do not appear to be many examples to demonstrate successful SFM.

5. Close to Nature Forest Management (CNFM)

5.1 The management of forests “closer to nature” has increased significantly in recent decades. The “nature-based silviculture” or “close-to-nature forest management” approach in Europe or ‘ecosystem management’ and ‘adaptive management’ in North America trends aim at improving current forest management practices so that they are still profitable, but more environmentally sound and even more sensitive to the complexities of nature conservation and the multiple, varying and steadily increasing demands of society by mimicking natural forest structures, their processes as well as their dynamics. The management of forests “closer to nature” has increased significantly in recent decades simultaneously accompanied by ever more reliable and refined models, promoting its efficient implementation. The basic idea is to reach a better balance between productive, protective and social functions. Other important goal is to increase economic competitiveness by cost reduction and increase robustness to climate change.

5.2 “Close to Nature Forestry” or “Nature based Forestry” philosophy emerged in Europe as early as in 19th century through writings of eminent foresters. The clear cutting and replanting with monoculture of conifer species in Europe was most prevalent management that started in early 19th century. It witnessed site degradation, frequent windbreaks and outbreak of pest and disease attacks that caused huge damage to Spruce plantations in Switzerland. Switzerland shifted to close to nature forestry in late 19th and early 20th century. During this period India was introducing traditional forestry practices of Europe like uniform or regular shelter wood system for changing irregular forests into regular ones and selection system and its variants and coppice system to cut selectively marketable tree species.

5.3 The nature based forestry movement began in Germany in 1920s. In 1950 a Close to Nature forestry Group was organized in Germany and the group members are foresters and forest owners. The expansion of this movement outside Germany gave birth to Pro Silva Europe in Slovenia in 1989. Twenty-six European countries are its members and USA and Canada have also joined recently. The members are foresters, forest owners, students and other interested parties.

5.4  PRO SILVA EUROPE promotes forest management strategies that optimize the maintenance, conservation, and utilisation of forest ecosystems in such a way that the ecological and socio-economic functions are sustainable and profitable. The general approach to management that is advocated by the PRO SILVA includes market and non-market objectives and takes the whole forest ecosystem into consideration. With reference to sustainability in its broadest sense including all their uses the PRO SILVA believes that forests provide four categories of benefit to society. These are:

1. Conservation of ecosystems
2. Protection of soil and climate
3. Production of timber and other products
4. Recreation, amenity, and cultural aspects

5.5 The principles of Pro Silva Europe have a universal application. Pro Silva principles are based on a holistic approach to sustainability, covering the major issues of major importance to present-day forest management. These expect a typical of commitment from forest owners and forest managers to the following issues: the basic principles of responsible forest management and forest utilisation, the maintenance of biodiversity, the adaptation of man-made changes to environmental conditions related to the ecologically sustainable use of energy, the use of exotic species, and the ecological role of forests in the landscape.

5.6 At its Hanover proclamation, the Pro Silva Europe acknowledged the role of forests in Climate change mitigation. The proclamation reiterates Pro Silva principles. It mentions that afforestation can be done following the principles of Pro Silva and plantations can be transformed to close to nature forests so that forests become ecologically more sustainable and that change from even aged to uneven aged can be brought about. It also says that financial resources are needed for afforestation .
6. Paradigm shift from classical forest management to forest ecosystem management

6.1 India should move to an ecosystem approach to forest management applying principles of “Close to Nature Forestry”. It is obvious from the state of forests that the classical or traditional forest management has become scientifically obsolete and it has been having deleterious effects on remaining and logged over forests resulting in a serious degree of ecosystem degradation. Therefore, there is need to shift from classical management system to a more scientific, integrated and ecosystem based forest management with the objective to restore forest ecosystems and bring forests close to nature.

6.2 India has a vast variation in ecological conditions including soil, climate and vegetation type. All planning and application of the principles and operations should be site specific. Different approaches and methods will be needed for different forest types and varying site conditions in terms of gradient, soil fertility, erosion status, precipitation regime soil moisture, and other environmental factors, local peoples’ dependence and protection from grazing. There will also be need to develop on pilot basis site specific plan and model management plans to demonstrate that ecosystem based management can be introduced without drastic changes in management and policies.

6.3 The methods and techniques to be applied to change forest structure and composition to bring it close to nature and introducing a newer version of selection system for continuation of forest cover across all forests in a way that ecosystem integrity remains unaffected and flow of ecosystem services continues on a sustainable basis. When afforestation, reforestation or enrichment planting in degraded forests is undertaken or unsustainable coppice forests are changed to healthy and mixed forests with local species the principles of Pro Silva as applicable to Indian conditions should be followed.

6.4 Paradigm Shift will require acceptance of the new principles by the Government, foresters and society. Forests are owned by states that manage these through their forest departments. The traditional working plan system governs the management of forests and rarely any deviation is allowed though not all prescriptions are followed other than allowable annual cut. The new concept of ecosystem-based management will have to be incorporated in working plans under preparation and those prepared in future. In addition, the MOEF and Forest Departments can issue guidelines for management of forests. It will be a challenging mission, as some people will perceive it as a threat to their long held views, beliefs and conviction in classical management. This is but inevitable and there will be a few early converts but as a campaign is launched and sustained it will draw wide support.

People at the Centre of Ecosystem Management
6.5 A new approach will be desirable to involve local community as well as civil society. The joint forest management (JFM) could not sustain and did not have significant positive impacts on forest resources barring a few exceptions. It has been a project and fund driven activity which became dormant when both these were withdrawn reverting to business as usual. The one extreme view to handover management to communities did not succeed so also another that people should protect forests in lieu of a promised share in forest produce or revenue. The ecosystem management is much more complex than JFM as the target will be to exclude negative influence of people from forest ecosystems and harness their positive energies to enhance ecosystem quality and productive potential. It will be more proactive participation than hitherto administered participation. The Working Plan Code 2014 requires the Working Plan Officer to discuss the management issues with the people.

Forest Governance reforms for Forest Ecosystem Management
6.6 A shift to ecosystem-based management will require incorporation of this approach in policies; development planning and working plan system. The National Forest Policy 1988 lays stress on achieving ecological security and environmental balance. The forestry organizations, therefore, should adopt the ecosystem approach in their day-to-day forest operations be it afforestation/ reforestation or PA management. An assessment of forest governance will be necessary to understand strength and weaknesses and also to identify changes that would be required for implementing the changed forest management activities. Shift to the ecosystem-based management will be a long drawn process. Therefore, the principle of adaptive management should be adopted and practiced so that a flexible process is set on motion and corrections and improvements could be made periodically as the learning curve rises.

Climate Change and the Management of Forests in India

Dr. R D Jakati

Globally the forest ecosystems are threatened with modifications due to climate change. These ecosystems which have evolved over thousand years may see change in the structure and composition of flora and fauna, and quite importantly the less studied associated soil micro-flora. Some species of flora and fauna may go locally extinct or migrate to favourable climatic conditions. These ecosystems have not been static but dynamic in nature and have been adapting to the gradually changing conditions. However, they may not absorb the rapidly changing climatic conditions causing the structural and the compositional changes which are bound to reflect in the ecosystem services. These changes may not necessarily be in the interest of mankind. This situation calls for careful documentation, analysis and monitoring of various forest systems, especially with respect to their historical structure and composition, if relevant data is available. Such studies are complex in tropical forest systems because there is a large number of species on every unit of area with little knowledge of their local inter-dependence and association with the soil micro-flora.

The traditional forest management in India considered forest as a resource and harvested the same in more or less orderly manner, generally termed as scientific management. It was based on two main principles: the principle of sustained yield and that of normal forest. The principle of sustained yield in practice meant sustained supply of wood to the market for which adequate forest areas were harvested.Since the growing stock was not uniformly spread over the entire forest area and also that quality of stocking was also not uniform, appropriate adjustment factors were used and applied in the practical forest management so that the supply of timber/ wood to the market remained constant. Many mixed species’ forests, which constituted and continue to be bulk of our forests, didn’t regenerate under clear felling systems. When some did the composition changed.

Along with the above, there was another practice of regenerating forests through coppicing. Most of the trees when cut near the base produce coppice shoots. Since the root system already exists the shoots grow vigorously. The area gets covered soon. In a mixed forest some species grow more rapidly than the others. Such rapidly growing species dominate the slow-growing ones. The composition thus tends to change. If such forests are harvested, say, at relatively short intervals the site degrades and gets exhausted of the nutrients. The possibility of such happening increases in areas which are dry and generally devoid of humus. This system of management with coppice regeneration was practiced in many forest areas in central India. Teak and sal (Shorea robusta) were the preferred species; other species were removed to favour these species. Many of these forests in central India are degraded and have a composition which reflects degradation. What constituted normal forest in a mixed forest was little studied and understood.

 Itarsi Hoshangabad -Photo R D Jakati, 2015
Itarsi Hoshangabad
-Photo R D Jakati, 2015

In many areas of dry deciduous teak forests in Madhya Pradesh significantly higher, at some places profuse, regeneration of Chloroxylon swietenia is seen. This clearly indicates site degradation /nutrient deficiency. (This species is an indicator of degraded site).

These concepts of traditional forest management were borrowed from the study of forestry science based on even aged single species forests in Europe. The normal forest meant densely packed forest blocks of even age and covering all age classes in an area. The principle of progressively increasing sustained yield was a further evolution of the principle of sustained yield. This principle advocated increasing the yield from the forest by adopting appropriate management practices like improving the density of stocking and harvesting more area so that the yield from forests increased. It was believed that the forests were inexhaustible store of renewable resource (under all circumstances). By middle of the nineteenth century Europeans had discovered that forests under such practices were not sustainable in the long run and had observed degradation of sites under such management. It came to be recognized that what nature produced on a particular site as an ecosystem is the best suited and also the most productive one for the site. This gave rise to the Dauerwald system/continuous cover forestry and eventually the close to nature forestry.

India has a long tradition of over hundred years of preparation of working plans. The nature, the contents and the legality of this document have undergone metamorphic changes over, especially, last two decades. It started as a well thought written plan of systematically harvesting forests keeping in view the concept of sustained yield and normal growing stock. As the general awareness regarding multiple use forestry grew, newer technologies made available for collecting necessary data and the society in general became more aware about environmental needs, the contents of such a plan underwent lot of changes. The first common working plan code was formulated in 1891 which was revised in 2004, after about hundred years.The next revision was felt necessary soon thereafter and the revised one was adopted in 2014. The principles of sustainable forest management were adopted in Rio conference followed by the twelve principles adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2003, after Malawi conference, in view of climate change. These developments associated with better knowledge of ecosystem conservation necessitated the revision of the working plan code. At present the working plans are made by the working plan officers, they are discussed in the state forest departments and are approved by the Regional Chief Conservators of Forests of Government of India. The approval of the management plans became necessary after the directions to that effect by the Supreme Court of India, in view of forest being on the concurrent list of the Constitution of India.

As per the current working plan code, the plan is broadly divided into two parts, as in the previous one. The first part containing twelve chapters is the summery of facts on which proposals are based and the second part, which prescribes the future management, has as many chapters as the number of working circles plus one. The extra one is the chapter on general constitution of working circles and the justification of making working circles. The twelve chapters of the first part describe the area, locality factors, forests and their vulnerability, composition, past management and the effect of on forests, growth and yield, socio economic status of the people living in and out of forests and their relationship with forests etc. Each chapter on working circle gives general status, management prescriptions; demand limits which can be put on the resource considering various factors etc.

In India, learning from the past follies foresters, as a community, have become more conservation oriented and generally are in favour of careful harvesting of forests. The society in general is also not in favour of felling trees. The activism on the part of the judiciary has also played its own role in directing the management to be careful in the utilisation of forest resource. These societal changes have made forest stand structure uneven aged and at many places tending to be selection type. These conditions are thus favourable for the adoption of ‘Close to Nature Forestry system’ for the well-stocked natural forests in India. The moderately stocked forests and the under stocked forests should be restocked with preferably native species considering the degradation stage and the nutrient status of forest soils etc. Although the contents of the working plans have improved a lot, there are gaps which are necessary for the management to be the ecosystem based.

Different forest types have different species composition. Within a forest type the composition also changes with site quality to some extent. At the time of making fresh enumeration (forest inventory), which is done at the time of revision /preparation of working plan, the data of composition of different forest types by site quality may be compiled. The genetic variation of the species may also be recorded to the extent possible. From the tables of diameter distribution of different species structural and compositional studies can be carried out for reflecting on the past management and making future management prescriptions. Sukachev (1954) at the World Forestry Congress in his paper “Forest types and their significance for forest economy” said forest types should form the basis of study and classification.

In India a large number of preservation plots were established in different forest types to study the composition, structure and the growth of the forests. Various Silviculture conferences, starting with one in 1929, discussed and encouraged establishment of such preservation plots. Many such plots established were not maintained and recorded properly at a later date. Data of some preservation plots is available with some states but proper study of these has not been undertaken. The data of such preservation plots can throw light on the composition and structure of the original natural vegetation of the given forest type. And if the data of adequate number of   preservation plots is available, the natural range of variability can be studied besides throwing light on the past management deficiencies.

It is quite often stated that fire and grazing are two most important degrading locality factors. It is true. There is no doubt about them. But how far our systems of forest management have contributed to the site degradation is a difficult question to answer. Research on this aspect needs to be conducted for better management in future. Some of our good forest areas, measured on the basis of the basal area, are depleted. They appear well stocked because of the presence of relatively larger proportion of young and pole crop. The number of big trees is very small. It seems that most forests had been harvested at shorter intervals like the forests worked under systems involving concentrated regeneration felling, and /or the coppice systems. Normally, the job of working plan officer ends at calculating the increment the forest puts on and recommending removal of equal to or less than the gross increment accrued. However, it may be remembered that even the depleted forests put on some increment. It is incorrect to recommend removal of increment if the forest is depleted. In fact the forest growing stock needs to be built up and the site conditions allowed to recuperate in case of depleted forests. Such decision can be taken if the working plan officer knows the level of stocking. And that is where the problem starts. In case of mixed forests there are no yield tables to compare the existing stocking and the level of depletion. Generally knowing that the forest is depleted and so recommending removal only part of increment, intuitively, is incorrect and unscientific. Here comes in the role of preservation plots data and the study of structure and composition of the forest under management which is the heart of ecosystem based forest management. The analysis of the crop which is generally written in the chapter on the forests or in the chapter on the statistics of growth and yield need to incorporate such studies on which management prescriptions can be based

The ecosystem approach to forest management is widely recommended to be adopted for the obvious reasons of its focus on the sustainability of the system considering the structure, composition and the functioning to be the heart and soul of forest management associated with decentralization of authority of management to the lowest possible level, and adopting the inter sectoral linkages. In India, laws regulating forests have been amended from time to time to consider the interest of forests and wildlife but inter-sectoral dialogue with agricultural sector or transport sector, that have fragmented the important biodiversity habitats, have not been initiated.

-Photo R D Jakati, 2015
-Photo R D Jakati, 2015

Natcom II report of Government of India, 2012, predicts top dying in teak and Sal forests. This, the report says, will happen due to nutrient deficiency despite favourable conditions for higher primary productivity under changing climate.

In so far as the adaptation to climate change in forest management is concerned the broad principles adopted are: 1) Increase tree species richness. Degradation of forests generally results in decrease in species diversity. Past management have generally favoured economically important species at the cost of others. 2) Increase structural diversity using uneven aged silvicultural system. 3) Maintain and increase genetic variation within tree species through tending and thinning practices or through enrichment planting of tolerant provenances of native species.   4) Increase resistance of individual trees to biotic and abiotic stress, for example, vigorously growing dominant and co-dominant tress are resistant to biotic stress and individuals with well developed big crowns are resistant to wind damage.

Normally working plans in India are written for the management of forests of a division. But there is a need to look beyond the boundaries of forests. This is because of the following reasons.1) Developments outside forest influence the forest resource condition. 2) National Forest Policy aims at increasing forest and tree cover to 33% which is possible if tree cultivation takes place outside forest boundary. It is also known that if agroforestry is promoted, the pressure on natural forests reduces. The promotion of agroforestry as a tool to conserve forest resource, therefore, should find place in the working plans. 3) Under the direction of the Supreme Court licensing of saw mills limited to the wood production capacity of the division / district is made mandatory. These saw mills / wood based industries may or may not use wood obtained from forests. It is, therefore, necessary to undertake survey of wood resource outside forest boundaries in the division/ district to monitor the pressure on forests. In view of this it is necessary that working plans may be written for the geographical area of the forest division and be called the natural resource management plan.

Dr. R D Jakati


Irshad Khan

According to the Inter-government Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II report land use change and cover (LUCC) is both a cause and consequence of climate change and constitutes a major driver of changes in a natural ecosystem and biodiversity. The major ongoing changes in subtropical and tropical regions are clearance of forests and woodlands for conversion to agriculture, pasture and commercial cash crops (such as soy, palm oil and rubber). These changes have been causing green house gas (GHG) emissions and their increased concentrations in the atmosphere. The green vegetation is both a source and sink of GHGs. Deforestation for many people in tropical countries creates economic opportunities that is encouraged by growing demand for food products and also creates export potential.

Forests help mitigate climate change impact through removal of large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere, through absorption or reflection of solar radiation (albedo) the production of aerosols that form clouds and also some cooling effect through evapotranspiration.

The IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5) claims with high confidence that the global forests currently are net sink. The intake of carbon by well-stocked and regenerating forests was counterbalanced by release of GHG due to land use change, deforestation and forest degradation between 2000 and 2007 resulting in a net balance of 1.1± 0.8GtCyr-1. However, there are also recent scientific findings that point out that the forest carbon sink is gradually becoming weaker as a number of complex drivers are causing deforestation and forest degradation.

Interestingly, the impact of climate change on temperate forests is that there is an increase in growth rates of trees and corresponding carbon stocks. This is attributed to increased length of growing season, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, and forest management involving regeneration of area heavily harvested in the past. On the contrary the impact of climate change on tropical forests is still not very clear with degree of certainty and there are conflicting views. There is no clarity regarding the rates of photosynthesis due to increased CO2 concentrations, erratic patterns of precipitation, frequency of drought, forest fires and pests and pathogen epidemics. Climate models have not been able to provide reasonable conclusions. However, there is agreement that many tree species in moist tropical forests are sensitive to drought and may face migration and mortality. There is also agreement that forest fire frequency and severity is also increasing.

Dry tropical forests have characteristics that develop under seasonal rainfall regime. Monsoon rains occur only in a certain part of the year for 2-3 months and these forests face long periods of heat and drought. There is likelihood that significant parts of these forests are going to be under severe climate change stress due to over exposure to high temperatures and lower rainfall. The productivity of these forests is likely to decrease due to climate change and associated increased risk of fires, pest and pathogen attacks and other drivers.

There are evidences that plantation forests created by afforestation and reforestation are showing increased growth rates and productivity due to increased CO2 the atmosphere. However, the effect of increased fire frequency and intensity, drought, pathogen, and storms have not been taken into account that will affect or offset the increased productivity. The plantation forests are also vulnerable due to their even aged and single species composition that makes them less resilient. It is believed by scientists that uneven aged and mixed species tree plantations are better equipped to face climate change stress, are more resilient and have better chance of surviving.

It is well recognized that earth’s forest ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change impacts; the only question remains is the severity in different regions. Certain changes are being observed in forest ecosystems and are being attributed to rising global temperature and changed precipitation patterns. On the other hand, there are indications that the productivity of boreal forests is increasing due to increased temperature. There is likelihood that the climate change will lead to species migration, tree mortality, early tree flowering and seed production, early leave fall among deciduous species, pest and pathogen epidemic, droughts, absence of natural regeneration as well as loss of biodiversity and even species extinction. Changes are likely to increase both forest fire frequency and intensity.

Some forests in temperate regions may expand northward and in some tropical regions forest cover and area may reduce. Unsustainable land use and non-availability of water in many tropical regions may result in forest species die back. There are observations in south Asia that Tectona grandis (teak) and Shorea robusta, two valuable timber species, are showing top dying phenomenon and it is expanding to large areas. Although scientific research and data are lacking, the changes are closely associated with climate change.

The adverse impact on forest health and productivity will reduce availability of ecosystem services and goods from forests that will adversely affect local communities that depend on forests for sustenance and livelihood in the tropical countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. These countries are likely to suffer the worst impact that may be difficult to visualize today.

It is a matter of concern that there appears to be no preparedness to face the climate challenges. The approach is one of watching passively and even a feeling of skepticism about the scientific forecast as emerges from climate change models. The adaptation strategies for forest ecosystems are lacking.cropped-IMG_2762.jpg

There is also a sense of lack of clarity as to what exactly would be the impacts, and what would be the intensity and which species and ecosystems will be more vulnerable than the others. It remains difficult to make exact or tenable forecasts on these issues. In view of the complexities of the natural ecosystems, modeling for scenario forecasting has its own limitations. Many people tend to argue that the best course is watch and observe the changes taking place and at what speed as well as resilience of these systems. The predictions point out that the impacts will be highly conspicuous and even irreversible in the second half of this century.

Human species will survive climate change?


Irshad Khan

Catastrophic climate impacts threatening survival of human race are inevitable if business as usual continues resulting in ever increasing green house gas (GHG) emissions intensity and addition of GHG concentration to the earth’s atmosphere. However, if actions are taken by all members of the international community, both developed and developing countries aiming at reducing emissions of GHG and sincere efforts are made to reduce GHG concentration in the atmosphere, the future survival of human as well as other animal and plant species will be assured.

It is evident from the Paris Agreement on Climate Change (2016) that the global community has arrived at a consensus that that our planet’s average atmospheric temperature increase should be limited to 2 degree C from pre-industrial revolution temperature by 2050. Actions to mitigate climate change are found expression in the intended nationally determined contributions (INDC) submitted to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by most countries have done it and the other are in the process preparing and submission.

It is a well recognised fact that GHG emissions have not peaked as yet and many developing countries and emerging economies are increasing their emission intensity as well as per capita emissions with the justification that they are at a development stage when they are compelled to use increasing energy from fossil fuels to make progress and reduce poverty in their respective countries. They also assert, from time to time, the principle of equity and climate justice along with that of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), though these principles have been diluted in recent international climate change negotiations. For example, both China and India (China being the highest emitter) intend their emissions peaking around 2030. Similar is case with countries like Brazil, Russia and South Africa. Simultaneously these countries are also taking steps to reduce dependence on fossil fuel based energy and increase share of renewable energy gradually.

The Paris Agreement has given hope to our society. It is a scientific fact that the strongest instinct that all animals have is “survival”. They fight back attacks, resist threats and use all their energies both physical and mental to save their lives. A question arises whether human species has come to possess that collective consciousness and instinct today? Historically, it did not and this is one species that has been killing and destroying its own kind. The most primitive instinct of man has been to create security by killing others perceived as threat. The ancient tribal battles, invasions, occupation of other countries and land, extermination of villages and towns by invading and conquering armies, expansion of territories, colonisation other countries and exploitation of fellow human beings-have characterised human attitude and behaviour.  This trait appears to be deep rooted in our unconscious and subconscious mind and human egoistic approach is reflected in our social, economic and political system.

One striking difference in case of climate change appears to be that it is challenging one and all members of human community. The GHG emissions diffuse throughout earth’s atmosphere quickly irrespective of where the source is. Even the most powerful economies have no power to prevent the emissions from traveling.

Should collective risk and threats raise level of human consciousness to be ready to face climate change disasters or even to reverse these? Or will collective catastrophe and  miseries provide solace in accepting as a day of doom for all.

There is a hope in the wisdom of mankind that they will face this challenge collectively, unite to take remedial measures, change their life styles, mitigate impacts and mobilise resources and organise adaptation to climate change.  This and this alone will ensure survival of human species beyond 2050 and 2100 AD.